Publications by:

Robert C. Lacy

Senior Conservation Scientist
Chicago Zoological Society
Brookfield, IL 60513 USA



Lacy, R.C., C.B. Lynch and G.R. Lynch. 1978. Developmental and adult acclimation effects of ambient temperature on temperature regulation of mice selected for high and low levels of nest-building. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 123:185-192. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 1978. Dynamics of t-alleles in Mus musculus populations: Review and speculation. The Biologist 60:41-67. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 1979. The adaptiveness of a rare male mating advantage under heterosis. Behavior Genetics 9:51-54. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. and C.B. Lynch. 1979. Quantitative genetic analysis of temperature regulation in Mus musculus. I. Partitioning of variance. Genetics 91:743-753. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 1980. The evolution of eusociality in termites: A haplodiploid analogy? American Naturalist 116:449-451. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 1981. Taxonomic and distributional notes on some fungus-feeding North American Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae). Entomological News 92:59-63. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 1982. Niche breadth and abundance as determinants of genetic variation in populations of mycophagous drosophilid flies (Diptera:Drosophilidae). Evolution 36:1265-1275. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 1983. Structure of genetic variation within and between populations of mycophagous Drosophila. Genetics 104:81-94. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. and P.W. Sherman. 1983. Kin recognition by phenotype matching. American Naturalist 121:489-512. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 1984. Ecological and genetic responses to mycophagy in Drosophilidae (Diptera). Pages 286-301 in Q. Wheeler and M. Blackwell (eds.), Fungus/Insect Relationships: Perspectives in Ecology and Evolution. Columbia University Press, New York. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 1984. Predictability, toxicity, and trophic niche breadth in fungus-feeding Drosophilidae (Diptera). Ecological Entomology 9:43-54. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 1984. The evolution of termite eusociality: Reply to Leinaas. American Naturalist 123:876-878. (Download)


Hayssen, V. and R.C. Lacy. 1985. Basal metabolic rates in mammals: Taxonomic differences in the allometry of BMR and body mass. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 81A:741-754. (Download)


Hayssen, V., R.C. Lacy and P.J. Parker. 1985. Metatherian reproduction: Transitional or transcending? American Naturalist 126:617-632. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 1985. Evidence that group selection counters the evolution of sexual dimorphism. Evolutionary Theory 7:173-177. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 1985. Some genetic considerations for the management of captive populations suggested by computer simulations. AAZPA 1985 Annual Proceedings, 627-630.


Lacy, R.C. and C.E. Bock. 1986. The correlation of range size and local abundance of some North American birds. Ecology 67:258-260. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 1987. Loss of genetic diversity from managed populations: Interacting effects of drift, mutation, immigration, selection, and population subdivision. Conservation Biology 1:143-158. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 1987. Further genetic and demographic analyses of small rhino populations. Pachyderm (Newsletter of the African Elephant and Rhino Specialist Group) No. 9, pp. 16-19.


Lacy, R.C. 1988. A report on population genetics in conservation. Conservation Biology 2:245-247. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 1988. Genetic variability in captive stocks: Assessing past loss, present status, and future outlook. AAZPA 1988 Annual Proceedings 113-121. (Download)


Lacy, R.C., M.L. Foster, and the Primate Department Staff. 1988. Determination of pedigrees and taxa of primates by protein electrophoresis. International Zoo Yearbook 27:159-168. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. and T.W. Clark. 1989. Genetic variability in black-footed ferret populations: Past, present, and future. Pages 83-103 in U.S. Seal, E.T. Thorne, M.A. Bogan, and S.H. Anderson (eds.), Conservation Biology and the Black-Footed Ferret. Yale University Press, New Haven. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 1989. Analysis of founder representation in pedigrees: Founder equivalents and founder genome equivalents. Zoo Biology 8:111-124. (Download)


Lacy, R.C, Flesness, N.R., and Seal, U.S. 1989. Puerto Rican parrot population viability analysis. Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. IUCN SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota. (Access)


Seal, U.S. and R.C. Lacy. 1989. Florida panther population viability analysis. Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. IUCN SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota. (Access)


Paine, F.L., J.D. Miller, G. Crawshaw, B. Johnson, R. Lacy, C.F. Smith III, and P.J. Tolson. 1990. Status of the Puerto Rican crested toad. International Zoo Yearbook 28:53-58. (Download)


Maguire, L.A. and R.C. Lacy. 1990. Allocating scarce resources for conservation of endangered subspecies: Partitioning zoo space for tigers. Conservation Biology 4:157-166. (Download)


Brewer, B.A., R.C. Lacy, M.L. Foster, and G. Alaks. 1990. Inbreeding depression in insular and central populations of Peromyscus mice. Journal of Heredity 81:257-266. (Download)


Maguire, L.A., R.C. Lacy, R.J. Begg, and T.W. Clark. 1990. An analysis of alternative strategies for recovering the eastern barred bandicoot in Victoria. Pages 147-164 in T.W. Clark and J.H. Seebeck (eds.), The Management and Conservation of Small Populations. Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield, Illinois. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. and T.W. Clark. 1990. Population viability assessment of the eastern barred bandicoot in Victoria. Pages 131-146 in T.W. Clark and J.H. Seebeck (eds.), The Management and Conservation of Small Populations. Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield, Illinois. (Download)


George, G.G., J. Dixon, G. Challis, and R.C. Lacy. 1990. Taxonomy and palaeontology of the eastern barred bandicoot. Pages 33-46 in T.W. Clark and J.H. Seebeck (eds.), The Management and Conservation of Small Populations. Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield, Illinois. (Download)


Seal, U.S. and R.C. Lacy. 1990. Florida Key Deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) population viability assessment. Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. IUCN SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota. (Access)


Lindenmayer, D.B., V.C. Thomas, R.C. Lacy, and T.W. Clark. 1991. Population Viability Analysis (PVA): The concept and its applications, with a case study of Leadbeater's Possum, Gymnobelideus leadbeateri McCoy. Report to the Forest and Timber Inquiry (Resource Assessment Commission), Consultancy Series No. FTC91/18, Canberra, Australia. 170 pp.


Clark, T.W., G.N. Backhouse, and R.C. Lacy. 1991. The population viability assessment workshop: A tool for threatened species management. Endangered Species Update 8:1-5.


Clark, T.W., G.N. Backhouse, and R.C. Lacy. 1991. Report of a workshop on population viability assessment as a tool for threatened species management and conservation. Australian Zoologist 27:28-35. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 1991. Zoos and the surplus problem: An alternative solution. Zoo Biology 10:293-297. (Download)


Johnston, L.A. and R.C. Lacy. 1991. Utilization of sperm banks to maintain genetic diversity in captive populations of wild cattle. Pages 107-118 in D.L. Armstrong and T.S. Groves (eds.), Wild Cattle Symposium Proceedings. Henry Doorly Zoo, Omaha, Nebraska.


Seal, U.S., R.C. Lacy, K. Medley, R. Seal, and T.J. Foose. 1991. Tana River Primate Reserve Conservation Assessment Workshop Report. IUCN SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota. (Access)


Mirande, C., R. Lacy, and U. Seal. 1991. Whooping crane (Grus americana) conservation viability assessment workshop report. IUCN SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota. (Access)


Foose, T.J., R.C. Lacy, R. Brett, and U.S. Seal. 1991. Kenya black rhinoceros metapopulation workshop report. IUCN SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota. (Access)


Lacy, R.C. 1992. The effects of inbreeding on isolated populations: Are minimum viable population sizes predictable? Pages 277-296 in P.L. Fiedler and S.K. Jain (eds.), Conservation Biology: The Theory and Practice of Nature Conservation, Preservation and Management. Chapman and Hall, New York. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. and T. Kreeger. 1992. VORTEX Users Manual. A stochastic simulation of the extinction process. IUCN SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota. (Download more recent version)


Seal, U.S., R.C. Lacy, et al. 1992. Genetic management strategies and population viability of the Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi). Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. IUCN SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota. (Access)


Ellis, S., K. Hughes, C. Kuehler, R. Lacy, and U. Seal. 1992. `Alala, Akohekohe, and Palila Population and Habitat Viability Assessment Reports. IUCN SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota. (Access)


Ellis, S., C. Kuehler, R. Lacy, K. Hughes, and U. Seal. 1992. Hawai`ian forest birds conservation assessment and management plan. IUCN SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota. (Access)


Lacy, R.C. 1993. Impacts of inbreeding in natural and captive populations of vertebrates: Implications for conservation. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 36:480-496. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 1993. VORTEX: A computer simulation model for Population Viability Analysis. Wildlife Research 20:45-65. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. and T.W. Clark. 1993. Simulation modeling of American marten populations: Vulnerability to extinction. Great Basin Naturalist 53:282-292. (Download)


Lacy, R.C., A.M. Petric, and M. Warneke. 1993. Inbreeding and outbreeding depression in captive populations of wild species. Pages 352-374 in N.W. Thornhill (ed.), The Natural History of Inbreeding and Outbreeding. University of Chicago Press. (Download)


Lindenmayer, D.B., R.C. Lacy, V.C. Thomas, and T.W. Clark. 1993. Predictions of the impacts of changes in population size and environmental variability on Leadbeater's Possum, Gymnobelideus leadbeateri McCoy (Marsupialia: Petauridae) using Population Viability Analysis: an application of the computer program VORTEX. Wildlife Research 20:67-86. (Download)


Lindenmayer, D.B., T.W. Clark, R.C. Lacy, and V.C. Thomas. 1993. Population viability analysis as a tool in wildlife conservation policy: With reference to Australia. Environmental Management 17:745-758. (Download)


Lindenmayer, D.B. and R.C. Lacy. 1993. Using a computer simulation package for PVA to model the dynamics of sub-divided populations: An example using hypothetical meta-populations of the mountain brushtail possum. International Congress on Modelling and Simulation. Proceedings. 2:615-620. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 1993/1994. What is Population (and Habitat) Viability Analysis? Primate Conservation 14/15:27-33. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 1994. Review of Hartl, G.B. and Markowski, J. (eds.) Ecological genetics in mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 75:1090-1093.


Jimenez, J.A., K.A. Hughes, G. Alaks, L. Graham, and R.C. Lacy. 1994. An experimental study of inbreeding depression in a natural habitat. Science 266:271-273. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 1994. Managing genetic diversity in captive populations of animals. Pages 63-89 in M.L. Bowles and C.J. Whelan (eds.), Restoration and Recovery of Endangered Plants and Animals. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 1995. A sibling is as valuable as an offspring: Reply to Xia. American Naturalist 145:480-482. (Download)


Lindenmayer, D.B. and R.C. Lacy. 1995. Metapopulation viability of Leadbeater's Possum, Gymnobelideus leadbeateri, in fragmented old-growth forests. Ecological Applications 5:164-182. (Download)


Lindenmayer, D.B. and R.C. Lacy. 1995. Metapopulation viability of arboreal marsupials in fragmented old-growth forests: comparison among species. Ecological Applications 5:183-199. (Download)


Lacy, R.C., J.D. Ballou, F. Princee, A. Starfield, and E. Thompson. 1995. Pedigree analysis. Pages 57-75 in J.D. Ballou, M. Gilpin, and T.J. Foose (eds.), Population Management for Survival & Recovery. Analytical Methods and Strategies in Small Population Conservation. Columbia University Press, New York. (Download)


Ballou, J.D. and R.C. Lacy. 1995. Identifying genetically important individuals for management of genetic diversity in pedigreed populations. Pages 76-111 in J.D. Ballou, M. Gilpin, and T.J. Foose (eds.), Population Management for Survival & Recovery. Analytical Methods and Strategies in Small Population Conservation. Columbia University Press, New York. (Download)


Johnston, L.A. and R.C. Lacy. 1995. Genome resource banking for species conservation: Selection of sperm donors. Cryobiology 32:68-77. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 1995. Culling surplus animals for population management. Pages 187-194 in B.G. Norton, M. Hutchins, E.F. Stevens, and T.L. Maple (eds.) Ethics on the ark: Zoos, animal welfare, and wildlife conservation. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. (Download)


Lindenmayer, D.B. and R.C. Lacy. 1995. A simulation study of the impacts of population subdivision on the mountain brushtail possum, Trichosurus caninus Ogilby (Phalangeridae: Marsupialia), in south-eastern Australia. I. Demographic stability and population persistence. Biological Conservation 73:119-129. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. and D.B. Lindenmayer. 1995. A simulation study of the impacts of population subdivision on the mountain brushtail possum, Trichosurus caninus Ogilby (Phalangeridae: Marsupialia), in south-eastern Australia. II. Loss of genetic variation within and between subpopulations. Biological Conservation 73:131-142. (Download)


Lindenmayer, D.B., M.A. Burgman, H.R. Akcakaya, R.C. Lacy, and H.P. Possingham. 1995. A review of the generic computer programs ALEX, RAMAS/space and VORTEX for modelling the viability of wildlife populations. Ecological Modelling 82:161-174. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 1995. Clarification of genetic terms and their use in the management of captive populations. Zoo Biology 14:565-577. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 1995. Conservation geneticists make their case. (Book review.) Ecology 76:1684-1685.


Altmann, J., S.C. Alberts, S.A. Haines, J. Dubach, P. Muruthi, T. Coote, E. Geffen, D.J. Cheesman, R.S. Mututua, S.N. Saiyalel, R.K. Wayne, R.C. Lacy, and M.W. Bruford. 1996. Behavior predicts genetic structure in a wild primate group. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 93:5797-5801. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. and B.E. Horner. 1996. Effects of inbreeding on skeletal development of Rattus villosissimus. Journal of Heredity 87:277-287. (Download)


Lacy, R.C., G. Alaks, and A. Walsh. 1996. Hierarchical analysis of inbreeding depression in Peromyscus polionotus. Evolution 50:2187-2200.
See erratum.
(Download)


Lacy, R.C. 1996. (Book review) Conservation Genetics: Case histories from nature. Quarterly Review of Biology 71:566.


Hedrick, P.W., R.C. Lacy, F.W. Allendorf, and M.E. Soul鼯span>. 1996. Directions in conservation biology: Comments on Caughley. Conservation Biology 10:1312-1320. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 1997. Importance of genetic variation to the viability of mammalian populations. Journal of Mammalogy 78:320-335. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. and B.E. Horner. 1997. Effects of inbreeding on reproduction and sex ratio of Rattus villosissimus. Journal of Mammalogy 78:877-887. (Download)


Ballou, J.D., R.C. Lacy, D. Kleiman, A. Rylands, and S. Ellis (eds.). 1997. Leontopithecus II. The second Population and Habitat Viability Assessment for Lion Tamarins (Leontopithecus). IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN. (Access)


Lindenmayer, D.B., R.C. Lacy, and K.L. Viggers. 1998. Modelling survival and capture probabilities of the mountain brushtail possum (Trichosurus caninus) in the forests of south-eastern Australia using trap--recapture data. Journal of Zoology 245:1-13. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. and J.D. Ballou. 1998. Effectiveness of selection in reducing the genetic load in populations of Peromyscus polionotus during generations of inbreeding. Evolution 52:900-909. (Download)


Miller, P.S. and R.C. Lacy. 1999. VORTEX Version 8 users manual. A stochastic simulation of the simulation process. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group. Apple Valley, Minnesota. (Download more recent version)


Brook, B.W., J.R. Cannon, R.C. Lacy, C. Mirande, and R. Frankham. 1999. Comparison of the population viability analysis packages GAPPS, INMAT, RAMAS and VORTEX for the whooping crane (Grus americana). Animal Conservation 2:23-31. (Download)


Araya, B., D. Garland, G. Espinoza, A. Sanhuesa, A. Simeone, A. Teare, C. Zavalaga, R. Lacy, and S. Ellis. (eds.) 1999. Taller Anᬩsis de la Viabilidad del Hᢩtat y de la Poblacispan> del Pinguino Humboldt (Spheniscus humboldti). Borrador del informe. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN. (Access)


Cooper, J., D. Oschadleus, L. Shannon, M. Thornton, P. Whittington, R. Lacy, and S. Ellis (eds.) 1999. African Penguin Population and Habitat Viability Assessment. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN. (Access)


Lindenmayer, D.B., R.C. Lacy, H. Tyndale-Biscoe, A.C. Taylor, K.L. Viggers, and M.L. Pope. 1999. Integrating demographic and genetic studies of the Greater Glider Petauroides volans in fragmented forests: predicting movement patterns and rates for future testing. Pacific Conservation Biology 5:2-8. (Download)


Ellis, S., R.C. Lacy, S. Kennedy-Stoskopf, D.E. Wildt, U.S. Seal, and T. Logan. 1999. Florida panther population and habitat viability assessment and genetics workshop. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN. (Access)


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Lindenmayer, D.B., R.C. Lacy, and M.L. Pope. 2000. Testing a simulation model for Population Viability Analysis. Ecological Applications 10:580-597. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 2000. Management of limited animal populations. Pages 75-93 in D. Duffield and T. Robeck (eds.). Bottlenose dolphin reproduction workshop. Report. AZA Marine Mammal Taxon Advisory Group, Silver Spring, MD. (Download)


Pergams, O.R.W., R.C. Lacy, and M.V. Ashley. 2000. Conservation and management of Anacapa Island Deer Mice. Conservation Biology 14:819-832. (Download)


Penn, A.M., W.B. Sherwin, G. Gordon, D. Lunney, A. Melzer, and R.C. Lacy. 2000. Demographic forecasting in koala conservation. Conservation Biology 14:629-638. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 2000. Should we select genetic alleles in our conservation breeding programs? Zoo Biology 19:279-282. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 2000. Considering threats to the viability of small populations. Ecological Bulletins 48:39-51. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 2000. Structure of the VORTEX simulation model for population viability analysis. Ecological Bulletins 48:191-203. (Download)


Land, E.D., and R.C. Lacy. 2000. Introgression level achieved through Florida Panther genetic restoration. Endangered Species Update 17:100-105. (Download)


Lacy, R.C., and J.D. Ballou. 2001. Population Management 2000 User's Manual. Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield, IL. (Access newer PMx program)


Lindenmayer, D.B., and R.C. Lacy. 2002. Small mammals, habitat patches and PVA models: a field test of model predictive ability. Biological Conservation 103:247-265. (Download)


Lacy, R.C., and P.S. Miller. 2002. Incorporating human populations and activities into population viability analysis. Pages 490-510 in S.R. Beissinger and D.R. McCullough (eds.), Population Viability Analysis. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. (Download)


Maehr, D.S., R.C. Lacy, E.D. Land, O.L. Bass, and T.S. Hoctor. 2002. Evolution of Population Viability Assessments for the Florida panther: A multiperspective approach. Pages 284-311 in S.R. Beissinger and D.R. McCullough (eds.), Population Viability Analysis. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. (Download)


Hosack, D.A., P.S. Miller, J.J. Hervert, and R.C. Lacy. 2002. A population viability analysis for the endangered Sonoran pronghorn, Antilocapra americana sonoriensis. Mammalia 66:207-229. (Download)


Nyhus, P.J., F.R. Westley, R.C. Lacy, and P.S. Miller. 2002. A role for natural resource social science in biodiversity risk assessment. Society and Natural Resources 15:1-10. (Download)


Jones, K.L., T.C. Glenn, R.C. Lacy, J.R. Pierce, N. Unruh, C.M. Mirande, F. Chavez-Ramirez. 2002. Refining the whooping crane studbook by incorporating microsatellite DNA and leg banding analyses. Conservation Biology 16:789-799 (Download)


Maehr, D.S., and R. C. Lacy. 2002. Avoiding the lurking pitfalls in Florida panther recovery. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30:971-978. (Download)


Ryan, K.K., and R.C. Lacy. 2003. Monogamous male mice bias behaviour towards females according to very small differences in kinship. Animal Behaviour 65: 379-384. (Download)


Ryan, K.K., R.C. Lacy, and S.W. Margulis. 2003. Impacts of inbreeding on components of reproductive success. Pages 82-96 in: W. V. Holt, A. R. Pickard, J. C. Rodger, and D. E. Wildt, eds. Reproductive Science and Integrated Conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. (Download)


Lindenmayer, D. B., H. P. Possingham, R. C. Lacy, M. A. McCarthy and M. L. Pope. 2003. How accurate are population models? Lessons from landscape-scale tests in a fragmented system. Ecology Letters 6:41-47. (Download)


Miller, P.S., and R.C. Lacy. 2003. Integrating the human dimension into endangered species risk assessment. Pages 41-63 in: F.R. Westley and P.S. Miller, eds. Experiments in Consilience: Integrating Social and Scientific Responses to Save Endangered Species. Island Press, Washington, DC.


Miller, P.S., and R.C. Lacy. 2003. Metamodels as a tool for risk assessment. Pages 333-351 in: F.R. Westley and P.S. Miller, eds. Experiments in Consilience: Integrating Social and Scientific Responses to Save Endangered Species. Island Press, Washington, DC. (Download)


Westley, F., P.S. Miller, and R.C. Lacy. 2003. Far from land: Further explorations in consilience. Pages 352-361 in: F.R. Westley and P.S. Miller, eds. Experiments in Consilience: Integrating Social and Scientific Responses to Save Endangered Species. Island Press, Washington, DC.


Singleton, I., S. Wich, S. Husson, S. Stephens, S. Utami Atmoko, M. Leighton, N. Rosen, K. Traylor-Holzer, R. Lacy and O. Byers (eds.). 2004. Orangutan Population and Habitat Viability Assessment: Final Report. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN. (Access)


Lacy, R.C., and A. Vargas. 2004. Informe sobre la gestispan> gen鴩ca y demogrᦩca del programa de cr�/span> para la conservacispan> del lince ib鲩co: escenarios, conclusiones y recomendaciones. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Madrid, Spain. (Download)


Heinsohn, R., R. C. Lacy, D. B. Lindenmayer, H. Marsh, D. Kwan, and I.R. Lawler. 2004. Unsustainable harvest of dugongs in Torres Strait and Cape York (Australia) waters: two case studies using population viability analysis. Animal Conservation 7:417-425. (Download)


Miller, P.S. and R.C. Lacy. 2005. VORTEX. A stochastic simulation of the simulation process. Version 9.50 user's manual. Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (IUCN/SSC). Apple Valley, Minnesota. (Download program and manual)


Margulis, S.W., M. Nabong, G. Alaks, A. Walsh, and R.C. Lacy. 2005. Effects of early experience on subsequent parental behaviour and reproductive success in oldfield mice, Peromyscus polionotus. Animal Behaviour 69:627-634. (Download)


Traylor-Holzer, K., R. Lacy, D. Reed, and O. Byers (eds.). 2005. Alabama Beach Mouse Population and Habitat Viability Assessment: Final Report. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN. (Access)


Mendelson, J.R. III, et al. (50 co-authors, including R.C. Lacy). 2006. Confronting amphibian declines and extinctions. Science 313:48. (Download)


Mendelson, J.R. III, et al. (18 co-authors, including R.C. Lacy). 2006. Responding to amphibian loss. Response. Science 314:1541-1542. (Download)


Matamoros, Y., H. Vargas, B. Lacy, O. Byers, E. Travis, G. Montoya. (Editores). 2006. Taller para An଩sisde Viabilidad de Poblaci/span> Hࢩtatpara el Ping/span> de Galᰡgos. Informe Final. Parque Nacional Galᰡgos, Puerto Ayora, Santa Cruz, Galᰡgos, Ecuador. 8-11 de febrero, 2005

(Access)


Zippel, K., R. Lacy, and O. Byers (eds.) 2006. CBSG/WAZA Amphibian Ex Situ Conservation Planning Workshop Final Report. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN. (Access)


Vargas, F.H., R.C. Lacy, P.J. Johnson, A. Steinfurth, R.J.M. Crawford, P.D. Boersma, and D.W. MacDonald. 2007. Modelling the effect of El Nin the persistence of small populations: The Galᰡgos penguin as a case study. Biological Conservation 137:138-148. (Download)


Miller, P.S., F.R. Westley, A.P. Byers, and R.C. Lacy. 2007. An experiment in managing the human animal: The PHVA process and its role in conservation decision-making. Pages 173-188 in T.S. Stoinski, H.D. Steklis, and P.T. Mehlman. Conservation in the 21st century: Gorillas as a case study. Springer, New York. (Download)


Nyhus, P.J., R. Lacy, F.R. Westley, P.S. Miller, H. Vredenburg, P. Paquet, and J. Pollak. 2007. Tackling biocomplexity and meta-models for species risk assessment. Ecology & Society 12: 31 [online] URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol12/iss1/art31/


Pergams, O.R.W. and R.C. Lacy. 2008. Rapid morphological and genetic change in Chicago-area Peromyscus. Molecular Ecology 17:450-463. (Download)


Dasmahapatra, K.K., R.C. Lacy, and W. Amos. 2008. Estimating levels of inbreeding using AFLP markers. Heredity 100:286-295. (Download)


Wich, S.A., E. Meijaard, A.J. Marshall, S. Husson, M. Ancrenaz, R.C. Lacy, C.P. van Schaik, J. Sugardjito, T. Simorangkir, K. Traylor-Holzer, M. Doughty, J. Supriatna, R. Dennis, M. Gumal, C.D. Knott, and I. Singleton. 2008. Distribution and conservation status of the orang-utan (Pongo spp.) on Borneo and Sumatra: How many remain? Oryx 42:329-339. (Download)


Rudnick, J.A., and R.C. Lacy. 2008. The impact of assumptions about founder relationships on the effectiveness of captive breeding strategies. Conservation Genetics 9:1439-1450. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 2008. Conservation breeding ᠧlobal view. Pages 381-398 in B.R. Sharma, N. Akhtar, B.K. Gupta (eds.). Indiaïnservation Breeding Initiative, Central Zoo Authority, New Delhi.


Lacy, R.C. 2008. Conservation breeding 㨡llenges and protocols. Pages 263-289 in B.R. Sharma, N. Akhtar, B.K. Gupta (eds.). Indiaïnservation Breeding Initiative, Central Zoo Authority, New Delhi.


IUCN/SSC. 2008. Strategic Planning for Species Conservation: A Handbook. Version 1.0. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN Species Survival Commission. 104pp. (R Lacy was one of the writers and co-editors, and chaired the task force that developed the handbook.) (Download)


Lacy, R.C., M. Borbat, and J.P. Pollak. 2009. Vortex: A stochastic simulation of the extinction process. Version 9.99. Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield, Illinois, USA. (Software download site)


Lacy, R.C. 2009. Stopping evolution: Genetic management of captive populations. Pages 58-81 in: G. Amato, R. DeSalle, O.A. Ryder, and H.C. Rosenbaum. Conservation genetics in the age of genomics. Columbia University Press, New York. (Download)


Marshall, A.J., R. Lacy, M. Ancrenaz, O. Byers, S.J. Husson, M. Leighton, E. Meijaard, N. Rosen, I. Singleton, S. Stephens, K. Traylor-Holzer, S.S.U. Atmoko, C.P. van Schaik, and S.A. Wich. 2009. Orangutan population biology, life history, and conservation. Pages 311-326 in: S.A. Wich, S.S.I. Atmoko, T.M. Setia, and C.P. van Schaik, eds. Orangutans. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. (Download)


Ivy, J.A., A, Miller, R.C. Lacy, and J. A. DeWoody. 2009. Methods and prospects for using molecular data in captive breeding programs: an empirical example using parma wallabies (Macropus parma). Journal of Heredity 100:441-454.쯳pan>(Download)


Leus, K., and R.C. Lacy. 2009. Genetic and demographic management of conservation breeding programs oriented towards reintroduction. Pages 74-84 in: A. Vargas, C. Breitenmoser, and U. Breitenmoser (eds.) Iberian Lynx Ex Situ Conservation: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Fundacispan> Biodiversidad / IUCN Cat Specialist Group, Madrid. (Download)


Ivy, J.A., and R.C. Lacy. 2010. Using molecular methods to improve the genetic management of captive breeding programs for threatened species. Pages 267-295 in: J.A. DeWoody, J.W. Bickham, C.H. Michler, K.M. Nicols, O.E. Rhodes, and K.E. Woeste, eds. Molecular Approaches in Natural Resource Conservation and Management. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. (Download)


Malo, A.F., F. Martinez-Pastor, G. Alaks, J. Dubach, and R.C. Lacy. 2010. Effects of genetic captive-breeding protocols on sperm quality and fertility in the white-footed mouse. Biology of Reproduction 83:540-548. (Download)


Ballou, J.D., R.C. Lacy, and J.P. Pollak. 2010. PMx: software for demographic and genetic analysis and management of pedigreed populations. Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield, Illinois, USA. (software site)


Lacy, R.C. 2011. Re-thinking ex situ vs. in situ species conservation. Pages 25-29 in: G. Dick, ed.쯳pan>Biodiversity is Life. Proceedings of the 65th Annual Conference of the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. WAZA, Gland, Switzerland. (Download)


Asa, C.S., K. Traylor-Holzer, and R.C. Lacy. 2011. Can conservation-breeding programmes be improved by incorporating mate choice? International Zoo Yearbook 45:203-212. (Download)


Leus, K., K. Traylor-Holzer, and R.C. Lacy. 2011. Genetic and demographic population management in zoos and aquariums: recent developments, future challenges and opportunities for scientific research. International Zoo Yearbook 45:213-225. (Download)


Jamieson, I.G., and R.C. Lacy. 2012. Managing genetic issues in reintroduction biology. Pages 441-475 in: J.G. Ewen, D.P. Armstrong, K.A. Parker, & P.J. Seddon, eds. Reintroduction Biology: Integrating Science and Management. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.


Asa, C.S., K. Traylor-Holzer, and R.C. Lacy. 2011. Mate choice as a potential tool to increase population sustainability. WAZA Magazine 12: 23-25. (Download)


Baker, A.M., R.C. Lacy, K. Leus, and K. Traylor-Holzer. 2011. Intensive management of populations for conservation. WAZA Magazine 12: 40-43. (Download)


Frankham, R., J.D. Ballou, M.D. Eldridge, R.C. Lacy, K. Ralls, M.R. Dudash, and C.R. Fenster. 2011. Predicting the probability of outbreeding depression: critical information for managing fragmented populations.쯳pan>Conservation Biology 25:465-475. (Download) (Download Supplemental Info)


Desbiez, A., K. Traylor-Holzer, R. Lacy, et al. 2012. Population Viability Analysis of jaguar populations in Brazil. In: Jaguar in Brazil. CATnews (Special Issue) 7:35-37.


Lacy, R.C., J.D. Ballou, & J.P. Pollak. 2012. PMx: Software package for demographic and genetic analysis and management of pedigreed populations. Methods in Ecology & Evolution 3:433-437. doi: 10.1111/j.2041-210X.2011.00148.x (Download)


Bradshaw, C.J.A., C.R. McMahon, P.S. Miller, R.C. Lacy, M.J. Watts, M.L. Verant, J.P. Pollak, D.A. Fordham, T.A.A. Prowse, and쯳pan>B.W. Brook. 2012. Novel coupling of individual-based epidemiological and demographic models predicts realistic dynamics of tuberculosis in alien buffalo. Journal of Applied Ecology 49:268-277. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02081.x. (Download)


Ivy, J.A., and R.C. Lacy. 2012. A comparison of strategies for selecting breeding pairs to maximize genetic diversity retention in managed populations. Journal of Heredity 103:186-196. doi: 10.1093/jhered/esr129 (Download)


Lacy, R.C., and C. A. Beuchat. 2012. Managing the genetic health of the Basenji. The Basenji May/June 2012:10-13. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. 2012. Extending pedigreeᮡlysis for uncertain parentage and diverse breeding systems. Journal of Heredity 103:197-205. doi: 10.1093/jhered/esr135 (Download)


Frankham, R., J.D. Ballou, M.R. Dudash, M.D.B. Eldridge, C.B. Fenster, R.C. Lacy, J.R. Mendelson III, I.J. Porton, K. Ralls, and O.A. Ryder. 2012. Implications of different species concepts for conserving biodiversity. Biological Conservation 153:25-31. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. Understanding inbreeding depression: 25 years of experiments with Peromyscus mice. Pages 491-492 in F.W. Allendorf, G. Luikart, and S.N. Aiken. Conservation and the genetics of populations. 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Oxford, UK.


 

Lacy, R.C. Achieving true sustainability of zoo populations. Zoo Biology 32:19-26. (Download)


Lacy, R.C. and G. Alaks. Effects of inbreeding on skeletal size and fluctuating asymmetry of Peromyscus polionotus mice. Zoo Biology 32:125-133. (Download)


Prowse, T.A.A., C.N. Johnson, R.C. Lacy, C.J.A. Bradshaw, J.P. Pollak, M.J. Watts, and B.W. Brook. No need for disease: testing extinction hypotheses for the thylacine using multi-species metamodels. Journal of Animal Ecology 82:355-364. (Download)


Lacy, R.C., G. Alaks, and A. Walsh. 2013. Evolution of Peromyscus leucopus mice in response to a captive environment. PLoS ONE 8(8): e72452. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072452. (Download)


Lacy, R.C., K. Traylor-Holzer, and J.D. Ballou. 2013. Managing for true sustainability of species. WAZA Magazine 14:10-14. (Download)


Meile, R., R.C. Lacy, F.H. Vargas, and P.G. Parker. 2013. Modeling the potential effects of Plasmodium infection on the Galapagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus). Auk 130: 440-448. (Download)


Lacy, R.C., P.S. Miller, P.J. Nyhus, J.P Pollak, B.E. Raboy, and S. Zeigler. 2013. Metamodels for transdisciplinary analysis of population dynamics. PLoS ONE 8(12): e84211. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084211.꼯span>(Download)


Pollak, J.P., R.C. Lacy. 2013. MetaModel Manager. Version 1.0. Chicago Zoological Society,

Brookfield, Illinois. Available: http://www.vortex10.org/MeMoMa.aspx.


Raboy, B.E., and R.C. Lacy. 2013. MetaModel Manager userୡnual. Chicago Zoological

Society, Brookfield, Illinois. Available: http://www.vortex10.org/MeMoMa.aspx.


Byers, O., and R.C. Lacy. 2014. From captivity to conservation: Conservation Breeding Specialist Group and the evolving role of zoos. Pages 107-111 in G. McGregor-Reid and G. Moore, eds. History of Zoos and Aquariums: From Royal Gifts to Biodiversity Conservation. North of England Zoological Society, Chester.


Carroll, C., R.J. Frederickson, and R.C. Lacy. 2014. Developing metapopulation connectivity criteria from genetic and habitat data to recover the endangered Mexican wolf. Conservation Biology 28:76-86. (Download)


Frankham, R., R.C. Lacy, J.D. Ballou, M.R. Dudash, M.D.B. Eldridge, C.B. Fenster, J.R. Mendelson III, I.J. Porton, K. Ralls, and O.A. Ryder. 2014. Species concepts for conservation: Reply to Russello and Amato. Biological Conservation 170:334-335. (Download)


Lacy, R.C., and J.P. Pollak. 2014. VORTEX: A Stochastic Simulation of the Extinction Process.

Version 10.0. Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield, Illinois, USA. Available: http://www.vortex10.org/Vortex10.aspx.


Lacy, R.C., P.S. Miller, and K. Traylor-Holzer. 2014. Vortex 10 User͡nual. IUCN SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, and Chicago Zoological Society, Apple Valley, Minnesota, USA. Available: http://www.vortex10.org/Vortex10.aspx.


Lacy, R.C., J.P. Pollak, P.S. Miller, L. Hungerford, and P. Bright. 2014. Outbreak version 2.1. IUCN SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group. Apple Valley, Minnesota, USA. Available: http://www.vortex10.org/Outbreak.aspx.


Shoemaker, K.T., R.C. Lacy, M.L. Verant, B.W. Brook, T.M. Liveri, P.S. Miller, D.A. Fordham, and H.R. Akcakaya. 2014. Effects of prey metapopulation structure on the viability of black-footed ferrets in plague-impacted landscapes: a metamodelling approach. Journal of Applied Ecology 51:735-745. (Download)


Hoffman, J.I., F. Simpson, P. David, J.M. Rijks, T. Kuiken, M.A.S. Thorne, R.C. Lacy, K.K. Dasmahapatra. 2014. High-throughput sequencing reveals inbreeding depression in a natural population. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111:3775-3780. (Download)


Hedrick, P.W., and R.C. Lacy. 2015. Measuring relatedness between inbred individuals. Journal of Heredity 106:20-25. (Download)


Willoughby, J.R., N.B. Fernandez, M.C. Lamb, J.A. Ivy, R.C. Lacy, and J.A. DeWoody. 2015. The impacts of inbreeding, drift, and selection on genetic diversity in captive breeding populations. Molecular Ecology 24:98-110. (Download)


Wells, K., B.W. Brook, R.C. Lacy, G.J. Mutze, D.E. Peacock, R.G. Sinclair, N. Schwensow, P. Cassey, R.B. OᲡ, and D.A. Fordham. 2015. Timing and severity of immunizing diseases in rabbits is controlled by seasonal matching of host and pathogen dynamics. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 12:2014184 http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2014.1184. (Download)


Heinsohn, R., M. Webb, R. Lacy, A. Terauds, R. Alderman, and D. Stojanovic. 2015. A severe predator-induced population decline predicted for endangered, migratory swift parrots (Lathamus discolor). Biological Conservation 186:75-82. (Download)


Lacy, R.C., K.C. Balcomb III, L.J.N. Brent, D.P. Croft, C.W. Clark, and P.C. Paquet. 2015.

Report on Population Viability Analysis model investigations of threats to the Southern Resident Killer Whale population from Trans Mountain Expansion Project. Attachment E, Ecojustice 粩tten Evidence of Raincoast Conservation Foundation (A70286), National Energy Board (Canada). 120 pp. Available at http://docs.neb-one.gc.ca/fetch.asp?language=E&ID=A4L9G2.


Zhao, X., Y. Ueda, S. Kajigaya, G. Alaks, M.J. Desierto, D.M. Townsley, B. Dumitriu, J. Chen, R.C. Lacy, and N.S. Young. 2015. Cloning and molecular characterization of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and telomere length analysis of Peromyscus leucopus. Gene (in press)


Canessa, S., G. Guillera-Arroita, J. Lahoz-Monfort, D.M. Southwell, D.P. Armstrong, I. Chad購/span>, R.C. Lacy, and S.J. Converse. When do we need more data? A primer on calculating the value of information for applied ecologists. Methods in Ecology & Evolution (in press).


Prowse, T.A.A., C.J.A. Bradshaw, S. Delean, P. Cassey, R.C. Lacy, K. Wells, M. Aiello-Lammens, H.R. Ak硫aya, and B.W. Brook. An efficient protocol for the sensitivity analysis of complex ecological models. Ecosphere (in press).


Jim鮥z-Mena, B., K. Schad, N. Hanna, and R.C. Lacy. 2015. Pedigree analysis for the genetic management of group-living species. Ecology and Evolution (in press).


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